Dividends tax is a final tax on dividends at a rate of 20%, paid by resident companies and non-resident companies in respect of shares listed on the JSE or other South African licensed exchange. Dividends are tax exempt if the beneficial owner of the dividend is a South African company, retirement fund or other exempt person. Non-resident beneficial owners of dividends may benefit from reduced tax rates in limited circumstances. The tax is to be withheld by companies paying the taxable dividends, or by regulated intermediaries in the case of dividends on listed shares. The tax on dividends in kind (other than in cash) is payable, and is borne by the company that declares and pays the dividend.